The eye is the sense organ associated with sight,
and it detects light that is converted to electro-chemical
impulses in neurons.
Once the information passes from the optic nerve to the rest of the brain,it is sent to the occipital lobe, where sight is processed.
The occipital lobe is located in the back of the brain, above the cerebellum, and forms the center of the visual perception system, according to the Centre for Neuro Skills.
Each hemisphere has its own occipital lobe; therefore, each occipital lobe processes the information sent to that specific hemisphere.
The occipital lobe controls how a person perceives sight, so damage to this brain section can result in visual field cuts, and problems identifying color or movement of an object.
When light reaches the retina in the eye and an image is created, it moves to the rest of the brain through the optic nerve.
The optic nerve is the second cranial nerve, and is the connection between the brain and eyes.
Damage to the optic nerve prevents any information from being sent from the eyes to the rest of the brain.
The Canadian Institutes of Health Research states that information from the left eye goes to the right hemisphere and vice versa; this is because the optic nerve crosses at the optic chiasm, causing the optic nerve from each eye to send its information to the opposite side of the brain.
The last part of the brain involved in sight is the visual cortex, where sensory and motor information is integrated with vision.
The Canadian Institutes of Health Research states that multiple visual pathways are involved.
For example, the ventral visual pathway controls how a person identifies objects, while the dorsal visual pathway controls a person's visual-motor response to objects.
In other words, the visual cortex allows you to realize that you're looking at a plate, for example, and then allows you to pick it up.
|Cornea||It functions like a window that controls and focuses the entry of light into the eye.|
|Iris||It controls light levels inside the eye similar to the aperture on a camera.|
|Retina||It receives light that the lens has focused, convert the light into neural signals, and send these signals on to the brain for visual recognition.|
|Lens||It focuses light onto the retina and to help the eye focus on objects at various distances.|
|Pupil||It regulates the amount of light that enters the eye.|
|Rods||Photoreceptors in the retina of the eye, turning visible light into neuronal signals, which are sent to the brain.|
|Cones||Responsible for color vision and function best in relatively bright light, as opposed to rod cells, which work better in dim light.|
The nose is a sense organ associated with smell,
it helps with detecting different smells,
and determines with the smell is good or bad
The olfactory bulb is one of the structures of the limbic system and a very ancient part of the brain.
As mentioned in the previous description of the olfactory process,
the information captured by the sense of smell goes from the olfactory bulb to other structures of the limbic system.
Olfactory neuronOnce the neurons detect the molecules, they send messages to your brain, which identifies the smell.
There are more smells in the environment than there are receptors, and any given molecule may stimulate a combination of receptors,
creating a unique representation in the brain.These representations are registered by the brain as a particular smell.
|Nasal Cavity||Serves to lighten the skull, to produce mucus, to warm and moisturize air breathed in.|
|Sinuses||It produces a mucus that moisturizes the inside of the nose.|
|Olfactory Bulb||Receives neural input about odours detected by cells in the nasal cavity.|
The ear is associated with hearing, it isn’t just the hearing organ. It is a complex system of parts that not only allows humans to hear, but also makes it possible for humans to walk.
known as the cochlear nerve -- acts as a busy highway, transmitting electrical data from the inner ear to the brain stem, where the signals are relayed to other parts of the brain.
located in the temporal lobes of the brain, which are situated above the ears -- gives meaning to the large amount of information sent to it by the inner ear and cochlear nucleus. It is the language center of the brain and its role is to interpret sounds so they are understood.
|Ex Auditory Meatus||the passage leading inward through the tympanic portion of the temporal bone, from the auricle to the tympanic membrane.|
|Tympanic Membrane Malleus||it is a thin membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear.|
|Incus||receives vibrations from the malleus, to which it is connected laterally, and transmits these to the stapes, medially.|
|Stapes||transmits sound vibrations from the incus, another little bone in the middle ear, to the oval window adjacent to the inner ear.|
|Cochlea||It converts vibrations into neural messages.|
|Basilar Membrane||separates two liquid-filled tubes that run along the coil of the cochlea, the scala media and the scala tympani.|
The tongue is associated with the sense of tasteand allow you to experience tastes that are sweet, salty, sour, and bitter.
either of the paired lobes of the brain at the top of the head, including areas concerned with the reception and correlation of sensory information.
|Papillae||A small rounded protuberance on a part or organ of the body.|
|Taste Bud||Any of the clusters of bulbous nerve endings on the tongue and in the lining of the mouth that provide the sense of taste.|
|Region (Bitter)||Are way in the back.|
|Region (Sour)||Are behind salt taste buds.|
|Region (Salty)||Are on either side of the front of the tongue.|
|Region (Sweet)||Are on the tip of the tongue.|
|Region (Umami)||Was discovered later after basic roadmap of the tongue.|
The skin is associated with the sense of touchThe primary function of the skin is to act as a barrier. The skin provides protection from: mechanical impacts and pressure, variations in temperature, micro-organisms, radiation and chemicals.
Touch receptors are a type of mechanoreceptor because they are activated by mechanical perturbation of the cell membrane.
located in either shallow or deep skin, and may be encapsulated by specialized membranes that amplify pressure. When the appropriate type of pressure is applied to the skin, these membranes pinch the axon, causing it to fire.
|Mechanoreceptors||Are receptors in the skin and on other organs that detect sensations of touch.|
|Nociceptors||A sensory nerve cell that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to the spinal cord and brain.|
|Thermoreceptors||Are specialized nerve cells that are able to detect differences in temperature.|
|Hair Follicle||Act as a sensitive touch receptor.|
|Papillary Muscle||Contract to prevent inversion or prolapse of these valves on systole.|